In my view, children should have absolute right to refuse their parental custody without any evidence of abuse. There should be a government owned serviced studio apartment for children (0-18) and adolescents (18-21) in state custody. They should be given UBI and one studio apartment per child, 24-hour catering, quality education. They should obey curfew and go to school, and have to report and explain what do they do in free time and how they spend the UBI, and submit to drug test. Children in state custody should be offered middle to upper middle class living standard of that jurisdiction (50th to 98th percentile), not working class living standard (14th to 50th percentile). The problem of orphanage is children therein are offered 0th-2nd percentile living standard. How much percent of children of civilised countries will stay with their parents if offered 50th percentile living standard under state custody? I’m afraid it might be as high as 50%. I’m afraid even the most civilised of child assault/battery (including so-called mild/moderate/reasonable corporal punishment) prohibition countries (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland, Liechtenstein, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Austria, Germany, South Korea, Ireland, etc.) might have quite a lot of children (5%?) rather choose state custody over parental custody.
If children say only one phrase, I hate/don’t love/don’t like my parent(s), that should be more than enough evidence of abuse/neglect
for the burden of proof of reasonable suspicion. The burden of proof of child abuse/neglect for custody should be reasonable suspicion, neither preponderance of evidence nor beyond reasonable doubt. The burdens of proof of civil law and criminal law cases of child abuse should be, as same as other cases, preponderance of evidence and beyond reasonable doubt, respectively.
Children should have absolute right to refuse their parental custody without any evidence of abuse